Nginx的https配置记录以及http强制跳转到https的方法

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简介

基于nginx搭建了一个https访问的虚拟主机,监听的域名是test.com,但是很多用户不清楚https和http的区别,会很容易敲成http://test.com,这时会报出404错误,所以我需要做基于test.com域名的http向https的强制跳转。

一、Nginx安装(略)

安装的时候需要注意加上 --with-http_ssl_module,因为http_ssl_module不属于Nginx的基本模块。
Nginx安装方法:

# ./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
# make && make install

二、生成证书(略)

可以使用openssl生成证书:
可参考:http://www.cnblogs.com/kevingrace/p/5865501.html
比如生成如下两个证书文件(假设存放路径为/usr/local/nginx/cert/):
wangshibo.crt
wangshibo.key

三、修改Nginx配置

server {
listen 443;
server_name www.wangshibo.com;
root /var/www/vhosts/www.wangshibo.com/httpdocs/main/;
 
ssl on;
ssl_certificate /usr/local/nginx/cert/wangshibo.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/nginx/cert/wangshibo.key;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_protocols SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5; //或者是ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
 
access_log /var/www/vhosts/www.wangshibo.com/logs/clickstream_ssl.log main;
error_log /var/www/vhosts/www.wangshibo.com/logs/clickstream_error_ssl.log;
 
if ($remote_addr !~ ^(124.165.97.144|133.110.186.128|133.110.186.88)) { //对访问的来源ip做白名单限制
rewrite ^.*$ /maintence.php last;
}
location ~ \.php$ {
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
#include fastcgi_params;
include fastcgi.conf;
}
}

HTTP访问强制跳转到HTTPS

网站添加了https证书后,当http方式访问网站时就会报404错误,所以需要做http到https的强制跳转设置

一、采用nginx的rewrite方法.下面是将所有的http请求通过rewrite重写到https上。

例如将所有的dev.wangshibo.com域名的http访问强制跳转到https。
下面配置均可以实现:

配置1:
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
rewrite ^(.*)$ https://$host$1 permanent; //这是ngixn早前的写法,现在还可以使用。
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}
 
-------------------------------------------------------
上面的跳转配置rewrite ^(.*)$ https://$host$1 permanent;
也可以改为下面
rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://dev.wangshibo.com/$1 permanent;
或者
rewrite ^ http://dev.wangshibo.com$request_uri? permanent;
-------------------------------------------------------
 
配置2:
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri; //这是nginx最新支持的写法
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}
 
配置3:这种方式适用于多域名的时候,即访问wangshibo.com的http也会强制跳转到https://dev.wangshibo.com上面
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com wangshibo.com *.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
if ($host ~* "^wangshibo.com$") {
rewrite ^/(.*)$ https://dev.wangshibo.com/ permanent;
}
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}
 
配置4:下面是最简单的一种配置
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
if ($host = "dev.wangshibo.com") {
rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://dev.wangshibo.com permanent;
}
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

二、采用nginx的497状态码

497 – normal request was sent to HTTPS
解释:当网站只允许https访问时,当用http访问时nginx会报出497错误码

思路:
利用error_page命令将497状态码的链接重定向到https://dev.wangshibo.com这个域名上

配置实例:
如下访问dev.wangshibo.com或者wangshibo.com的http都会被强制跳转到https

server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com wangshibo.com *.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
error_page 497 https://$host$uri?$args;
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

也可以将80和443的配置放在一起:

server {
listen 127.0.0.1:443; #ssl端口
listen 127.0.0.1:80; #用户习惯用http访问,加上80,后面通过497状态码让它自动跳到443端口
server_name dev.wangshibo.com;
#为一个server{......}开启ssl支持
ssl on;
#指定PEM格式的证书文件
ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/wangshibo.pem;
#指定PEM格式的私钥文件
ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/wangshibo.key;
 
#让http请求重定向到https请求
error_page 497 https://$host$uri?$args;
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

三、利用meta的刷新作用将http跳转到https

上述的方法均会耗费服务器的资源,可以借鉴百度使用的方法:巧妙的利用meta的刷新作用,将http跳转到https
可以基于http://dev.wangshibo.com的虚拟主机路径下写一个index.html,内容就是http向https的跳转
将下面的内容追加到index.html首页文件内

[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/www/html/8080/index.html
[[email protected] ~]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com wangshibo.com *.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
#将404的页面重定向到https的首页
error_page 404 https://dev.wangshibo.com/;
 
location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

下面是nginx反代tomcat,并且http强制跳转至https。

访问http://zrx.wangshibo.com和访问http://172.29.34.33:8080/zrx/结果是一样的

[[email protected]_34_33_V vhosts]# cat zrx.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name zrx.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
 
access_log logs/access.log;
error_log logs/error.log;
 
return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
 
location ~ / {
root /data/nginx/html;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}
 
[[email protected]_34_33_V vhosts]# cat ssl-zrx.conf
upstream tomcat8 {
server 172.29.34.33:8080 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
}
 
server {
listen 443;
server_name zrx.wangshibo.com;
ssl on;
 
### SSL log files ###
access_log logs/ssl-access.log;
error_log logs/ssl-error.log;
 
### SSL cert files ###
ssl_certificate ssl/wangshibo.cer;
ssl_certificate_key ssl/wangshibo.key;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
 
location / {
proxy_pass http://tomcat8/zrx/;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
proxy_redirect off;
}
}

四、通过proxy_redirec方式

# re-write redirects to http as to https, example: /home
proxy_redirect http:// https://;

 

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